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compost_manure [2018/07/29 08:10] (current)
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 +====== **Compost manure** ======
 +\\   ​composting is the partial decomposition and stabilization of different organic substances by different microbial population under optimum conditions of moisture, temperature and aeration.\\ \\  **Aims of composting**\\ ​
 +  - to turn large amount of organic materials such as crop residues, kitchen waste, plant residues among others.
 +  - To cut garbage into humus ie food for crops.
 +\\  **Advantages of composting**\\ ​
 +  - to improve microbial life
 +  - cut down cost of production
 +  - its environmentally friendly
 +  - results to healthy crops hence healthy food.
 +  - Improve soil structure hence making it easy for roots to penetrate
 +  - root development and movement is encouraged
 +  - crops grown using compost resist drought better as compared to those planted in conventional way
 +  - help control soil erosion and leaching
 +  - it results to increased production.
 +\\  **Disadvantages** **of composting** \\ 
 +  - materials may not be always available
 +  - it is labor-intensive in preparation and application
 +\\ **Materials required when making compost manure.**\\ ​
 +  - Rough dry materials for example small dry sticks, maize stoch, reads,etc
 +  - Fine dry materials for example dry grass, dry leaves which can rot within a short period of time
 +  - Green materials eg. Leaves of tithonia, the russian comfry, calliandria,​ grass or weeds.
 +  - Manure eg animal dung, chicken dropping
 +  - wood ash got from the kitchen
 +  - top soil
 +  - water
 +\\ **Site selection**\\ ​
 +  - should be near the farm where it will be used
 +  - should be protected from direct sun to avoid the nutrient from escaping in to the air
 +  - should be protected from run off water and wind as this will destroy your compost .
 +\\  **Steps taken when making compost manure**\\ ​
 +  - measure the area where you are going to pile your compost i.e, 1.5x2m
 +  - loosen the soil( 15cm) deep this will enhance the movement of the micro-organism to the compost pile as well as aeration.
 +  - Lay down the rough materials(7cm)
 +  - lay down the fine dry materials(15cm)
 +  - put a layer of manure(animal dung or chicken dropping)
 +  - sprinkle some wood ash , wood ash contains potassium, phosphorus which help to control bad ordour (smell) from the compost
 +  - put a layer of green materials (15cm)
 +  - put a thin layer of top soil.
 +  - Repeat the process from step 4-7 until the heap is 1.5metres high.
 +  - Cover the pile with 10cm layer of top soil--this prevents the escape of nitrogen from the heap.
 +  - Drive a long stick straight pole in a slanting manner across the pile--the pole act as a thermometer to determine the decomposition process if it is going on well
 +  - water everyday
 +\\ **NOTE**\\ Water when necessary an average of every three days depending on the weather conditions; turning should done after two weeks. The outside and under compost materials should be set in the middle. The compost can be ready after 28 days.\\ \\  **Process of decomposition**\\ The process of decomposition is characterized by a period of rapid decomposition and temperature accumulation followed by a slower cooler decay of remaining substances. The temperature in the compost pile raises because of microbial heat production resulting from oxidation (breaking down of food). And also because of relatively slow heat transfer to the environment. Micro-organisms--primarily bacterial actinomyctes and fungi--use organic materials as a source of energy and nutrients producing heat, gasses and stablized organic matter.\\ \\ **Determining the maturity of your compost** \\ 
 +  * **Texture-has a fine texture, original materials can not be recognized**
 +  * **Smell - has inoffensive smell**
 +  * **Color- black or dark brown**
 +  * **Biological activities**
 + ​\\ ​ **APPLICATION OF COMPOST IN TO THE GARDEN**\\ compost manure has no effect on the soil when too much is applied however it is required that a farmer should apply in the ratio to 1:2, that is, one wheelbarrow of compost to two wheelbarrows of top soil only.\\ \\  Thanks a lot--from an organic farmer from pagak, okeny christopher.
compost_manure.txt ยท Last modified: 2018/07/29 08:10 (external edit)